A human universal found across many of the world's cultures is the mystical aspect of a religion that serves, in many ways, as a reaction against the dogmatic, ritualistic tradition of the same religion. Christian mystics of medieval Europe presented a direct confrontation to papal traditions in that they challenged the church through their theological interpretations of scripture, their graphic visions, and their threat to established gender roles.
Pangle, Hayley E.
"Christian Mysticism as a Threat to Papal Traditions,"
Grand Valley Journal of History:
1, Article 3.
Available at: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/gvjh/vol1/iss1/3