A human universal found across many of the world's cultures is the mystical aspect of a religion that serves, in many ways, as a reaction against the dogmatic, ritualistic tradition of the same religion. Christian mystics of medieval Europe presented a direct confrontation to papal traditions in that they challenged the church through their theological interpretations of scripture, their graphic visions, and their threat to established gender roles.
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Pangle, Hayley E.
"Christian Mysticism as a Threat to Papal Traditions,"
Grand Valley Journal of History:
1, Article 3.
Available at: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/gvjh/vol1/iss1/3