The structure of the Brazilian family is related to the five sub-cultures that, in turn, represent the geographic regions of the country. This chapter presents a brief characterization of the Brazilian culture and family and describes changes in the structural relations and in the redefinition of models of Brazilian family organization in the last century. In order to illustrate the subtle interactions among social factors that influence the family in Brazil, we point out some values, beliefs, and practices employed by middle and working class parents. It is also described some characteristics of parents-children relationships in middle and working class families, given an overview on child work, school, and home environment as they relate to the socialization in very poor families. We conclude this chapter emphasizing that the family has a privileged place in the creation, protection, support and maintenance of relationships in Brazilian society.