Growth and Survival of Jack Pine Exposed to Simulated Acid Rain as Seedlings


In a previous study, jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lambert) seedlings grown under pH 2.5 simulated rain had larger shoot/root ratios and altered nutrition compared with seedlings grown with pH 4.7 rain. The objective of this study was to determine if these differences in initial seedling characteristics produced long-term effects on survival or growth of outplanted seedlings. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater diameter increment (4.3 vs. 4.0 cm) between ages 6 and 10 of jack pine treated with pH 2.5 rain as seedlings was consistent with a carryover effect from the initial treatments. However, no differences between treatments in jack pine diameter, height, or survival persisted to age 14. Results support recent recommendations that extended measurement periods may be necessary to fully assess the long-term effects of pollutant increases or decreases on growth of immature trees.


Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana, acid rain, seedlings, pH, pollutants


Biology | Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment | Forest Biology