one-to-one device, case study, focus groups, technology




Billions of dollars are spent each year in the United States on technology for schools, and researchers in this case study wanted to determine the degree to which individual computing devices (ICDs) enhance the learning experience of students in grades six to twelve. The leadership practice of instructional rounds (City, Elmore, Fiarmen & Teitel, 2011) combined with the SAMR model (substitution, augmentation, modification and redefinition) (Puentadura, 2014) of technology integration was utilized in this case study to capture how ICDs are being used and the impact this use is having on learning. This method detected use rates far above what had been documented in the literature. By observing 27 randomly sampled classrooms and over 500 students in the case study district, researchers observed how ICDs were being used at the middle and high school level. Observational data analyzed using the SAMR model revealed that 84% of students were using the ICDs and of those, 86% were using them at higher levels of the model (i.e. modification or redefinition). Researchers also interviewed 45 students across eight focus groups. Focus group responses were culled for common themes, some of which included student reports of several learning enhancements as well as some problematic issues.

Original Citation

Warsen, G. & Vandermolen, R. (December 2020). When Technology Works: A Case Study Using Instructional Rounds and the SAMR Model. ICPEL Educational Leadership Review Fall 2020. Vol. 21.

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