teacher education, implicit bias, racist ideologies, qualitative research, ideological habits, individualism, associations, urban education




This study examined pre-service teachers’ initial perceptions of urban communities and schools. Furthermore, it explored whether engaging in critical service-learning coursework incorporating an anti-racist curriculum disrupted the mechanisms that perpetuate racist ideological habits and associations. The narrative analysis deconstructed 12 participants’ reflective essays using a critical race theoretical lens. The overall findings revealed that the participants experience urban communities through racist associations and ideologies promoting white supremacist thinking. The critical service-learning course did influence the perceptions of the participants. However, findings suggest that a single critical service-learning course is insufficient to prepare pre-service teachers with the anti-racist pedagogies necessary for disrupting the ideological habits they bring to the classroom. Therefore, this study concluded that teacher education programs should infuse anti-racist development as an ongoing and progressive aspect of their program.

Original Citation

Stockton, T. J. (2022). Dangerous associations: Racializing urban communities and the influence of one critical service-learning course to disrupt racist ideological habits. Journal of Race, Ethnicity and the City, 3(1), 42–69.

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