composition, critical thinking, critical questions, pragma-dialectics, teaching, Toulmin model, United States of America, writing


Arts and Humanities


Secondary and university instructors in the United States rely heavily on the Toulmin model to teach written argumentation. To date, pragma-dialectics (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 2004; van Eemeren 2010) is not a visible presence in American composition textbooks. To ameliorate the limits of a single framework, writing instructors and consultants should ask critical questions not only associated with Toulmin's model, but also those of the pragma-dialectic model of critical discussion.

Original Citation

Ellis, L. (2015). A Critique of the Ubiquity of the Toulmin Model in Argumentative Writing Instruction in the U.S.A. In F. H. van Eemeren & B. Garssen (Eds.), Scrutinizing Argumentation in Practice (UK ed. edition, pp. 201–214). Amsterdam ; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.