Faculty Scholarly Dissemination Grants


Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smiling: A Yearbook


Psychology Department


College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Date Range



Social and Behavioral Sciences


Since the 1980 a growing body of research has focused on gender differences in smiling with the majority of the findings demonstrating that women smile more often and more expansively than men (e.g., Abel, 2002; Ellis, 2006). Our study attempts to identify the age when gender differences in smiling emerge among European American and African American children and teenagers. Additionally, we looked at the level of diversity within each school and its relation to smiling behaviour. The sample comprised of 18,201 photographs from 34 yearbooks representative of 17 schools from Michigan. Yearbooks spanned from 1996 through 2008. Each smile was evaluated on a 3-point scale ranging from 0 (no smile) to 2 (full smile).

Conference Name

Regional Conference of the International Association for Cross-cultural Psychology

Conference Location

Los Angeles

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