71 collegiate male and female track and field athletes were surveyed approximately 0.5-3 hours prior to competition using the CSAI-2R competitive anxiety survey to assess for differences in cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence. Results indicated that track and field athletes competing in open competitions were likely to experience greater somatic anxiety and be less confident than their peers in closed groups. The two groups experienced similar amounts of cognitive anxiety.
May, Christopher J., "Effects of the Openness of an Event on Competitive Anxiety and Self Confidence in Track and Field Athletes" (2017). Honors Projects. 628.