We examined the functions of music-listening from a cross-cultural perspective. Two studies were conducted to capture personal, social and cultural experiences with music. Young people were sampled; mainly online surveys were used. Study 1 is a qualitative multicultural study that identified seven main functions of music: background, memories, diversion, emotion, self-regulation, reflection of self, and social bonding. In study 2, based on the qualitative data, we developed and validated a scale measuring Ratings of Experienced Social, PErsonal and Cultural Themes of MUSIC functions (RESPECT-MUSIC) in three cultural samples (Latin-American, Anglo- Saxon, and Germanic). A ten-factorial solution was found to be structurally equivalent and reliable across three cultural samples. The factors represent the functions: background, dancing, emotions, venting, focus, value development, political attitudes, social bonding with friends, family bonding, and cultural identity. Limitations of this research and future directions are discussed. The investigation complements previous psychological research on music with a cross-cultural perspective.
Author, F. M. (2011). Title of chapter. In F. Deutsch, M. Boehnke, U. Kühnen, & K. Boehnke (Eds.), Rendering borders obsolete: Cross-cultural and cultural psychology as an interdisciplinary, multi-method endeavor: Proceedings from the 19th International Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, (paper number). (URL)