dementia; wayfinding; wandering; instrument; community


This study evaluates three versions of the Wayfinding Effectiveness Scale (WES), developed to differentiate problems of wayfinding and wandering behavior of community-residing elders with dementia (EWD), in 266 dyads (EWD and caregiver) recruited from Alzheimer's Association chapters. Factor analyses yield a five-factor solution (explained variance = 62.6%): complex wayfinding goals, analytic strategies, global strategies, simple wayfinding goals, and being stimulus bound. Overall, internal consistencies are high: WES (.94-.95), and subscales are stable across all versions. Testretest reliability is acceptable for the overall WES and two subscales (complex and simple wayfinding goals) for the care recipient current behavior version. Construct validity is supported by the pattern of correlations among subscales and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showing significant differences among the care recipient (current vs. prior behavior) and caregiver versions overall and for all subscales. Results support the WES as a valid and reliable measure of wayfinding effectiveness in persons with dementia.


Original Citation: Algase, Donna, Gwi-Ryung Son, Cynthia Beel-Bates, Junah Song, Lan Yao, Elizabeth Beattie, and Sara Leitsch. "Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Wayfinding Effectiveness Scale." Western Journal of Nursing Research 29, no. 8 (2007): 1015-1032.