Introduction: Risk reduction counseling is an important component in HIV/AIDS prevention. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was conducted to determine if a single counseling session was as effective as a two-session intervention in reducing risk behavior. Methods: Community and academic investigators jointly developed the study design. A convenience sample of 242 persons was randomized to receive either a two session intervention with Conventional HIV Testing (CHT) or a one session intervention with HIV Rapid Testing (HRT). Participants completed a risk assessment immediately preceding the test and a risk reduction plan after the test; CHT participants received a second risk reduction session. Results: Of 130 participants completing a one-month follow-up, 86.9% were African American and 72.3% were male. All participants demonstrated a significant decrease in risk behaviors regardless of procedure. Conclusions: Findings suggested that a brief client-centered risk reduction counseling intervention can be equally effective with either CHT or HRT. CBPR allowed the academic partner to answer study questions as the community agency received information to make informed decisions during a transition period from CHT to HRT.

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