race; baseball cards; performance; values


This study reports on a search for racial disparities in the value of baseball cards for Black and White members of the National Baseball Hall of Fame (HOF). The study’s sample of 51 players was derived from the population of the 96 players elected to the HOF since 1936 by the Baseball Writers of America. Although the authors found that race produced no statistical difference in Black and White players’ card values, they did observe that players’ career performance plus the availability of a player’s card (scarcity) exerted a significant effect on the value of cards. The study concludes with a discussion of possible interpretations of these findings.


Original Citation: Hewitt, John D., Robert Muñoz, Jr., William L. Oliver, and Robert M. Regoli. "Race, Performance, and Baseball Card Values." Journal of Sport & Social Issues 29, no. 4 (2005): 411-425.