Student Summer Scholars Manuscripts


Crayfish, Invertebrate animals, Habitats, Chemical pollutants, Michigan, Alkylphenols


Aquaculture and Fisheries




Invertebrates make up much of the world's biological diversity. Their survival is fundamental to the maintenance of all life, and their ubiquitous distribution is useful when using them as biological indicators of pollution. Many invertebrate species are under threat of extinction due to exposure to various chemical pollutants. Crayfish are an important invertebrate that is affected by chemical pollutants, such as pesticide/herbicide runoff and industrial waste effluents. Crayfish are considered keystone species because they are an important resource for other species and consequently influence diversity and abundance. For these reasons, crayfish are important in terms of better understanding the effects of pollution on their behavior and ultimate survival. Alkylphenols are a group of chemicals often concentrated in the tissues of crayfish, fish, and birds when released into nature. They are used in various detergents and pesticide formulations, which makes them very common pollutants. Exposure can lead to contamination levels between ten to several thousand times greater than in the surrounding environment. They have notably adverse effects in fish and likely have similar harmful impacts for crayfish. We examined the effect of exposure to two alkylphenol pollutants (nonlyphenol and octylphenol) on development, growth, reproductive behavior, and success finding food at sublethal levels. We found numerous significant impacts on crayfish when exposed to alkylphenols.