Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Physical Therapy (M.S.)

Degree Program

Physical Therapy

First Advisor

Jim Scott

Second Advisor

Gordon Alderink

Third Advisor

Tim Lesnick


The purpose of this study was to examine the activity of the internal obliques (upper abdominals) versus the external obliques (lower abdominals) during a modified version of Kendall's upper and lower abdominal strength tests using surface electromyography on adults. The study was not correlated to Kendall's theory due to the necessity to have the internal oblique electrode placed on the anterior abdomen. Twenty-four women and sixteen men participated in the study. All subjects were taught two positions ("easy" and "hard") for both abdominal tests and performed eight trials. A normalized ratio was generated by dividing one "hard" trial by the mean of three "easy" trials for each position. A t-test revealed no significant difference between the activity of the external and internal oblique muscles in the two modified tests. There were no direct conclusions made regarding Kendall's abdominal tests. In conclusion, further research is needed with appropriate electrode placement on the lateral abdomen to examine muscle activity in KendalI's test positions for the upper and lower abdominals.


Questions or concerns regarding the copyright status of this item may be directed to