Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Nursing (M.S.N.)

Degree Program

College of Nursing


The study was undertaken to establish whether the administration of a local anesthetic, lidocaine, significantly reduces the pain of venipuncture in adults, to establish the degree of tolerability and effectiveness of each of three delivery methods for lidocaine, and to identify recipient's preferences among the three pain-relieving measures. In this study, lidocaine was administered using three different delivery techniques: (1) intradermal injection of lidocaine, (2) iontophoresis of lidocaine, and (3) topical application of lidocaine/prilocaine cream, prior to undergoing venipuncture. Participants were asked to measure the level of pain experienced with each method of local anesthesia as well as the level of pain experienced with venipuncture following each local anesthetic. Each of the three treatment groups were compared with placebo and each participant served as his or her own control. Twenty-two volunteers were recruited for participation in this study. Twenty volunteers completed two treatment sessions and twelve volunteers completed three treatment sessions.


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