Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Criminal Justice (M.S.)

Degree Program

School of Criminal Justice


There exists in the law enforcement community an antiquated notion that reactive management policies and practices are sufficient for the day-to-day operations of police organizations (Tafoya 1986,1990; Manning, 1997; Anderson, 2000). The law enforcement community remains highly resistant to change and unfortunately maintaining the ‘status quo’ inhibits the ability of police organizations to prepare for the uncertainties of an ever-changing environment (Tafoya, 1990; Manning, 1997; Anderson 2000).

The research presented here demonstrates the need for the law enforcement community to evaluate management strategies and move toward proactive management practices that are promoted from within the organization rather than from outside pressures.

Three hundred municipal police organizations in the state of Michigan were asked to respond to questions regarding human resource activities in their organization. The results demonstrate that that the levels of participation in human resource activities present in municipal police organizations in the state of Michigan offer positive feedback for implementing a proactive strategy to meet the challenges of an ever-changing environment.


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