Authors

Wilson Leung, Washington University in St. Louis
Christopher D. Shaffer, Washington University in St. Louis
Laura K. Reed, University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Sheryl T. Smith, Arcadia University
William Barshop, Washington University in St. Louis
William Dirkes, Washington University in St. Louis
Matthew Dothager, Washington University in St. Louis
Paul Lee, Washington University in St. Louis
Jeanette Wong, Washington University in St. Louis
David Xiong, Washington University in St. Louis
Han Yuan, Washington University in St. Louis
James E J Bedard, Adams State University
Joshua F. Machone, Adams State University
Seantay D. Patterson, Adams State University
Amber L. Price, Adams State University
Bryce A. Turner, Adams State University
Srebenka Robic, Agnes Scott College
Erin K. Luippold, Agnes Scott College
Shannon R. McCartha, Agnes Scott College
Tezin A. Walji, Agnes Scott College
Chelsea A. Walker, Agnes Scott College
Kenneth Saville, Albion College
Marita K. Abrams, Albion College
Andrew R. Armstrong, Albion College
William Armstrong, Albion College
Robert J. Bailey, Albion College
Chelsea R. Barberi, Albion College
Lauren R. Beck, Albion College
Amanda L. Blaker, Albion College
Christopher E. Blunden, Albion College
Jordan P. Brand, Albion College
Ethan J. Brock, Albion College
Dana W. Brooks, Albion College
Marie Brown, Albion College
Sarah C. Butzler, Albion College
Eric M. Clark, Albion College
Nicole B. Clark, Albion College
Ashley A. Collins, Albion College
Rebecca J. Cotteleer, Albion College
Peterson R. Cullimore, Albion College
Seth G. Dawson, Albion College
Carter T. Docking, Albion College
Sasha L. Dorsett, Albion College
Grace A. Dougherty, Albion College
Kaitlyn A. Downey, Albion College
Andrew P. Drake, Albion College
Erica K. Earl, Albion College
Trevor G. Floyd, Albion College
Joshua D. Forsyth, Albion College
Jonathan D. Foust, Albion College
Spencer L. Franchi, Albion College
James F. Geary, Albion College
Cynthia K. Hanson, Albion College
Taylor S. Harding, Albion College
Cameron B. Harris, Albion College
Jonathan M. Heckman, Albion College
Heather L. Holderness, Albion College
Nicole A. Howey, Albion College
Dontae A. Jacobs, Albion College
Elizabeth S. Jewell, Albion College
Maria Kaisler, Albion College
Elizabeth A. Karaska, Albion College
James L. Kehoe, Albion College
Hannah C. Koaches, Albion College
Jessica Koehler, Albion College
Dana Koenig, Albion College
Alexander J. Kujawski, Albion College
Jordan E. Kus, Albion College
Jennifer A. Lammers, Albion College
Rachel R. Leads, Albion College
Emily C. Leatherman, Albion College
Rachel N. Lippert, Albion College
Gregory S. Messenger, Albion College
Adam T. Morrow, Albion College
Victoria Newcomb, Albion College
Haley J. Plasman, Albion College
Stephanie J. Potocny, Albion College
Michelle K. Powers, Albion College
Rachel M. Reem, Albion College
Jonathan P. Rennhack, Albion College
Katherine R. Reynolds, Albion College
Lyndsey A. Reynolds, Albion College
Dong K. Rhee, Albion College
Allyson B. Rivard, Albion College
Adam J. Ronk, Albion College
Meghan B. Rooney, Albion College
Lainey S. Rubin, Albion College
Luke R. Salbert, Albion College
Rasleen K. Saluja, Albion College
Taylor Schauder, Albion College
Allison R. Schneiter, Albion College
Robert W. Schulz, Albion College
Karl E. Smith, Albion College
Sarah Spencer, Albion College
Bryant R. Swanson, Albion College
Melissa A. Tache, Albion College
Ashley A. Tewilliager, Albion College
Amanda K. Tilot, Albion College
Eve VanEck, Albion College
Matthew M. Villerot, Albion College
Megan B. Vylonis, Albion College
David T. Watson, Albion College
Juliana A. Wurzler, Albion College
Lauren M. Wysocki, Albion College
Monica Yalamanchili, Albion College
Matthew A. Zaborowicz, Albion College
Julia A. Emerson, Amherst College
Carlos Ortiz, Arcadia University
Frederic J. Deuschle, Arcadia University
Lauren A. DiLorenzo, Arcadia University
Katie L. Goeller, Arcadia University
Christopher R. Macchi, Arcadia University
Sarah E. Muller, Arcadia University
Brittany D. Pasierb, Arcadia University
Joseph E. Sable, Arcadia University
Jessica M. Tucci, Arcadia University
Marykathryn Tynon, Arcadia University
David A. Dunbar, Cabrini College
Levent H. Beken, Cabrini College
Alaina C. Conturso, Cabrini College
Benjamin L. Danner, Cabrini College
Gabriella A. DeMichele, Cabrini College
Justin A. Gonzales, Cabrini College
Maureen S. Hammond, Cabrini College
Colleen V. Kelley, Cabrini College
Elisabeth A. Kelly, Cabrini College
Danielle Kulich, Cabrini College
Catherine M. Mageeney, Cabrini College
Nikie L. McCabe, Cabrini College
Alyssa M. Newman, Cabrini College
Lindsay A. Spaeder, Cabrini College
Richard A. Tumminello, Cabrini College
Dennis Revie, California Lutheran University
Jonathon M. Benson, California Lutheran University
Michael C. Cristostomo, California Lutheran University
Paolo A. DaSilva, California Lutheran University
Katherine S. Harker, California Lutheran University
Jenifer N. Jarrell, California Lutheran University
Luis A. Jimenez, California Lutheran University
Brandon M. Katz, California Lutheran University
William R. Kennedy, California Lutheran University
Kimberly S. Kolibas, California Lutheran University
Mark T. LeBlanc, California Lutheran University
Trung T. Nguyen, California Lutheran University
Daniel S. Nicolas, California Lutheran University
Melissa D. Patao, California Lutheran University
Shane M. Patao, California Lutheran University
Bryan J. Rupley, California Lutheran University
Bridget J. Sessions, California Lutheran University
Jennifer A. Weaver, California Lutheran University
Anya L. Goodman, California Lutheran University
Erica L. Alvendia, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Shane M. Baldassari, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Ashley S. Brown, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Ian O. Chase, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Maida Chen, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Scott Chiang, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Avery B. Cromwell, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Ashley F. Custer, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Tia M. DiTommaso, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Jad El-Adaimi, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Nora C. Goscinski, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Ryan A. Grove, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Nestor Gutierrez, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Raechel S. Harnoto, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Heather Hedeen, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Emily L. Hong, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Barbara L. Hopkins, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Vilma F. Huerta, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Colin Khoshabian, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Kristin M. LaForge, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Cassidy T. Lee, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Benjamin M. Lewis, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Anniken M. Lydon, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Brian J. Maniaci, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Ryan D. Mitchell, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Elaine V. Morlock, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
William M. Morris, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Priyanka Naik, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Nicole C. Olson, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Jeanette M. Osterloh, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Marcos A. Perez, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Jonathan D. Presley, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Matt J. Randazzo, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Melanie K. Regan, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Franca G. Rossi, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Melanie A. Smith, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Eugenia A. Soliterman, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Ciani J. Sparks, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Danny L. Tran, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Tiffany Wan, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Anne A. Welker, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Jeremy N. Wong, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Aparna Sreenivasan, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Jim Youngblom, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Andrew Adams, California State University, Stanislaus
Justin Alldredge, California State University, Stanislaus
Ashley Bryant, California State University, Stanislaus
David Carranza, California State University, Stanislaus
Alyssa Cifelli, California State University, Stanislaus
Kevin Coulson, California State University, Stanislaus
Calise Debow, California State University, Stanislaus
Noelle Delacruz, California State University, Stanislaus
Charlene Emerson, California State University, Stanislaus
Cassandra Farrar, California State University, Stanislaus
Don Foret, California State University, Stanislaus
Edgar Garibay, California State University, Stanislaus
John Gooch, California State University, Stanislaus
Michelle Heslop, California State University, Stanislaus
Sukhjit Kaur, California State University, Stanislaus
Ambreen Khan, California State University, Stanislaus
Van Kim, California State University, Stanislaus
Travis Lamb, California State University, Stanislaus
Peter Lindbeck, California State University, Stanislaus
Gabi Lucas, California State University, Stanislaus
Elizabeth Macias, California State University, Stanislaus
Daniela Martiniuc, California State University, Stanislaus
Lissett Mayorga, California State University, Stanislaus
Joseph Medina, California State University, Stanislaus
Nelson Membreno, California State University, Stanislaus
Shady Messiah, California State University, Stanislaus
Lacey Neufeld, California State University, Stanislaus
San Francisco Nguyen, California State University, Stanislaus
Zachary Nichols, California State University, Stanislaus
George Odisho, California State University, Stanislaus
Daymon Peterson, California State University, Stanislaus
Laura Rodela, California State University, Stanislaus
Priscilla Rodriguez, California State University, Stanislaus
Vanessa Rodriguez, California State University, Stanislaus
Jorge Ruiz, California State University, Stanislaus
Will Sherrill, California State University, Stanislaus
Valeria Silva, California State University, Stanislaus
Jeri Sparks, California State University, Stanislaus
Geeta Statton, California State University, Stanislaus
Ashley Townsend, California State University, Stanislaus
Isabel Valdez, California State University, Stanislaus
Mary Waters, California State University, Stanislaus
Kyle Westphal, California State University, Stanislaus
Stacey Winkler, California State University, Stanislaus
Joannee Zumkehr, California State University, Stanislaus
Randall J. DeJong, Calvin College
Arlene J. Hoogewerf, Calvin College
Cheri M. Ackerman, Calvin College
Isaac O. Armistead, Calvin College
Lara Baatenberg, Calvin College
Matthew J. Bor, Calvin College
Lindsay K. Brouwer, Calvin College
Brandon J. Burkhart, Calvin College
Kelsey T. Bushhouse, Calvin College
Lejla Cesko, Calvin College
Tiffany Y Y Choi, Calvin College
Heather Cohen, Calvin College
Amanda M. Damsteegt, Calvin College
Jess M. Darusz, Calvin College
Cory M. Dauphin, Calvin College
Yelena P. Davis, Calvin College
Emily J. Diekema, Calvin College
Melissa Drewry, Calvin College
Michelle E M Eisen, Calvin College
Hayley M. Faber, Calvin College
Katherine J. Faber, Calvin College
Elizabeth Feenstra, Calvin College
Isabella T. Felzer-Kim, Calvin College
Brandy L. Hammond, Calvin College
Jesse Hendricksma, Calvin College
Milton R. Herrold, Calvin College
Julia A. Hilbrands, Calvin College
Emily J. Howell, Calvin College
Sarah A. Jelgerhuis, Calvin College
Timothy R. Jelsema, Calvin College
Benjamin K. Johnson, Calvin College
Kelly K. Jones, Calvin College
Anna Kim, Calvin College
Ross D. Kooienga, Calvin College
Erika E. Menyes, Calvin College
Eric A. Nollet, Calvin College
Brittany E. Plescher, Calvin College
Lindsay Rios, Calvin College
Jenny L. Rose, Calvin College
Allison J. Schepers, Calvin College
Geoff Scott, Calvin College
Joshua R. Smith, Calvin College
Allison M. Sterling, Calvin College
Jenna C. Tenney, Calvin College
Chris Uitvlugt, Calvin College
Rachel E. VanDyken, Calvin College
Marielle VanderVennen, Calvin College
Samantha Vue, Calvin College
Nighat P. Kokan, Cardinal Stritch University
Kwabea Agbley, Cardinal Stritch University
Sampson K. Boham, Cardinal Stritch University
Daniel Broomfield, Cardinal Stritch University
Kayla Chapman, Cardinal Stritch University
Ali Dobbe, Cardinal Stritch University
Ian Dobbe, Cardinal Stritch University
William Harrington, Cardinal Stritch University
Marwan Ibrahem, Cardinal Stritch University
Andre Kennedy, Cardinal Stritch University
Chad A. Koplinsky, Cardinal Stritch University
Cassandra Kubricky, Cardinal Stritch University
Danielle Ladzekpo, Cardinal Stritch University
Claire Pattison, Cardinal Stritch University
Roman E. Ramirez Jr., Cardinal Stritch University
Lucia Wande, Cardinal Stritch University
Sarah Woehlke, Cardinal Stritch University
Matthew Wawersik, Cardinal Stritch University
Elizabeth Kiernan, William & Mary
Jeffrey S. Thompson, Denison University
Roxanne Banker, Denison University
Justina R. Bartling, Denison University
Chinmoy I. Bhatiya, Denison University
Anna L. Boudoures, Denison University
Lena Christiansen, Denison University
Daniel S. Fosselman, Denison University
Kristin M. French, Denison University
Ishwar S. Gill, Denison University
Jessen T. Havill, Denison University
Jaelyn L. Johnson, Denison University
Lauren J. Keny, Denison University
John M. Kerber, Denison University
Bethany M. Klett, Denison University
Christina N. Kufel, Denison University
Francis J. May, Denison University
Jonathan P. Mecoli, Denison University
Callie R. Merry, Denison University
Lauren R. Meyer, Denison University
Emily G. Miller, Denison University
Gregory J. Mullen, Denison University
Katherine C. Palozola, Denison University
Jacob J. Pfeil, Denison University
Jessica G. Thomas, Denison University
Evan M. Verbofsky, Denison University
Eric P. Spana, Duke University
Anant Agarwalla, Duke University
Julia Chapman, Duke University
Ben Chlebina, Duke University
Insun Chong, Duke University
I N. Falk, Duke University
John D. Fitzgibbons, Duke University
Harrison Friedman, Duke University
Osagie Ighile, Duke University
Andrew J. Kim, Duke University
Kristin A. Knouse, Duke University
Faith Kung, Duke University
Danny Mammo, Duke University
Chun Leung Ng, Duke University
Vinyak S. Nikam, Duke University
Diana Norton, Duke University
Philip Pham, Duke University
Jessica W. Polk, Duke University
Shreya Prasad, Duke University
Helen Rankin, Duke University
Camille D. Ratliff, Duke University
Victoria Scala, Duke University
Nicholas U. Schwartz, Duke University
Jessica A. Shuen, Duke University
Amy Xu, Duke University
Thomas Q. Xu, Duke University
Yi Zhang, Duke University
Anne G. Rosenwald, Georgetown University
Martin G. Burg, Grand Valley State UniversityFollow
Stephanie J. Adams, Grand Valley State University
Morgan Baker, Grand Valley State University
Bobbi Botsford, Grand Valley State University
Briana Brinkley, Grand Valley State University
Carter Brown, Grand Valley State University
Shadie Emiah, Grand Valley State University
Erica Enoch, Grand Valley State University
Chad Gier, Grand Valley State University
Alyson Greenwell, Grand Valley State University
Lindsay Hoogenboom, Grand Valley State University
Jordan E. Matthews, Grand Valley State University
Mitchell McDonald, Grand Valley State University
Amanda Mercer, Grand Valley State University
Nicholaus Monsma, Grand Valley State University
Kristine Ostby, Grand Valley State University
Alen Ramic, Grand Valley State University
Devon Shallman, Grand Valley State University
Matthew Simon, Grand Valley State University
Eric Spencer, Grand Valley State University
Trisha Tomkins, Grand Valley State University
Pete Wendland, Grand Valley State University
Anna Wylie, Grand Valley State University
Michael J. Wolyniak, Hampden-Sydney College
Gregory M. Robertson, Hampden-Sydney College
Samuel I. Smith, Hampden-Sydney College
Justin R. DiAngelo, Hofstra University
Eric D. Sassu, Hofstra University
Satish C. Bhalla, Johnson C. Smith University
Karim A. Sharif, LaGuardia Community College
Tenzin Choeying, LaGuardia Community College
Jason S. Macias, LaGuardia Community College
Fareed Sanusi, LaGuardia Community College
Karvyn Torchon, LaGuardia Community College
April E. Bednarski, Lindenwood University
Consuelo J. Alvarez, Longwood University
Kristen C. Davis, Longwood University
Carrie A. Dunham, Longwood University
Alaina J. Grantham, Longwood University
Amber N. Hare, Longwood University
Jennifer Schottler, Longwood University
Zachary W. Scott, Longwood University
Gary A. Kuleck, Loyola Marymount University
Nicole S. Yu, Loyola Marymount University
Marian M. Kaehler, Luther College
Jacob Jipp, Luther College
Paul J. Overvoorde, Macalester College
Elizabeth Shoop, Macalester College
Olivia Cyranowski, Macalester College
Betsy Hoover, Macalester College
Matt Kusner, Macalester College
Devry Lin, Macalester College
Tijana Martinov, Macalester College
Jonathan Misch, Macalester College
Garrett Salzman, Macalester College
Holly Schiedermeyer, Macalester College
Michael Snavely, Macalester College
Stephanie Zarrasola, Macalester College
Susan Parrish, McDaniel College
Atlee Baker, McDaniel College
Alissa Beckett, McDaniel College
Carissa Belella, McDaniel College
Julie Bryant, McDaniel College
Turner Conrad, McDaniel College
Adam Fearnow, McDaniel College
Carolina Gomez, McDaniel College
Robert A. Herbstsomer, McDaniel College
Sarah Hirsch, McDaniel College
Cristen Johnson, McDaniel College
Melissa Jones, McDaniel College
Rita Kabaso, McDaniel College
Eric Lemmon, McDaniel College
Carolina Marques dos Santos Vieira, McDaniel College
Darryl McFarland, McDaniel College
Christopher McLaughlin, McDaniel College
Abbie Morgan, McDaniel College
Sepo Musokotwane, McDaniel College
William Neutzling, McDaniel College
Jana Nietmann, McDaniel College
Christina Paluskievicz, McDaniel College
Jessica Penn, McDaniel College
Emily Peoples, McDaniel College
Caitlin Pozmanter, McDaniel College
Emily Reed, McDaniel College
Nichole Rigby, McDaniel College
Lasse Schmidt, McDaniel College
Micah Shelton, McDaniel College
Rebecca Shuford, McDaniel College
Tiara Tirasawasdichai, McDaniel College
Blair Undem, McDaniel College
Damian Urick, McDaniel College
Kayla Vondy, McDaniel College
Bryan Yarrington, McDaniel College
Todd T. Eckdahl, Missouri Western State University
Jeffrey L. Poet, Missouri Western State University
Alicia B. Allen, Missouri Western State University
John E. Anderson, Missouri Western State University
Jason M. Barnett, Missouri Western State University
Jordan S. Baumgardner, Missouri Western State University
Adam D. Brown, Missouri Western State University
Jordan E. Carney, Missouri Western State University
Ramiro A. Chavez, Missouri Western State University
Shelbi L. Christgen, Missouri Western State University
Jordan S. Christie, Missouri Western State University
Andrea N. Clary, Missouri Western State University
Michael A. Conn, Missouri Western State University
Kristen M. Cooper, Missouri Western State University
Matt J. Crowley, Missouri Western State University
Samuel T. Crowley, Missouri Western State University
Jennifer S. Doty, Missouri Western State University
Brian A. Dow, Missouri Western State University
Curtis R. Edwards, Missouri Western State University
Darcie D. Elder, Missouri Western State University
John P. Fanning, Missouri Western State University
Bridget M. Janssen, Missouri Western State University
Anthony K. Lambright, Missouri Western State University
Curtiss E. Lane, Missouri Western State University
Austin B. Limle, Missouri Western State University
Tammy Mazur, Missouri Western State University
Marly R. McCracken, Missouri Western State University
Alexa M. McDonough, Missouri Western State University
Amy D. Melton, Missouri Western State University
Phillip J. Minnick, Missouri Western State University
Adam E. Musick, Missouri Western State University
William H. Newhart, Missouri Western State University
Joseph W. Noynaert, Missouri Western State University
Bradley J. Ogden, Missouri Western State University
Michael W. Sandusky, Missouri Western State University
Samantha M. Schmuecker, Missouri Western State University
Anna L. Shipman, Missouri Western State University
Anna L. Smith, Missouri Western State University
Kristen M. Thomsen, Missouri Western State University
Matthew R. Unzicker, Missouri Western State University
William B. Vernon, Missouri Western State University
Wesley W. Winn, Missouri Western State University
Dustin S. Woyski, Missouri Western State University
Xiao Zhu, Missouri Western State University
Chunguang Du, Montclair State University
Caitlin Ament, Montclair State University
Soham Aso, Montclair State University
Laura Simone Bisogno, Montclair State University
Jason Caronna, Montclair State University
Nadezhda Fefelova, Montclair State University
Lenin Lopez, Montclair State University
Lorraine Malkowitz, Montclair State University
Jonathan Marra, Montclair State University
Daniella Menillo, Montclair State University
Ifeanyi Obiorah, Montclair State University
Eric Nyabeta Onsarigo, Montclair State University
Shekerah Primus, Montclair State University
Mahdi Soos, Montclair State University
Archana Tare, Montclair State University
Ameer Zidan, Montclair State University
Christopher J. Jones, Moravian College
Todd Aronhalt, Moravian College
James M. Bellush, Moravian College
Christa Burke, Moravian College
Steve DeFazio, Moravian College
Benjamin R. Does, Moravian College
Todd D. Johnson, Moravian College
Nicholas Keysock, Moravian College
Nelson H. Knudsen, Moravian College
James Messler, Moravian College
Kevin Myirski, Moravian College
Jade Lea Rekai, Moravian College
Ryan Michael Rempe, Moravian College
Michael S. Salgado, Moravian College
Erica Stagaard, Moravian College
Justin R. Starcher, Moravian College
Andrew W. Waggoner, Moravian College
Anastasia K. Yemelyanova, Moravian College
Amy T. Hark, Muhlenberg College
Anne Bertolet, Muhlenberg College
Cyrus E. Kuschner, Muhlenberg College
Kesley Parry, Muhlenberg College
Michael Quach, Muhlenberg College
Lindsey Shantzer, Muhlenberg College
Mary E. Shaw, New Mexico Highlands University
Mary A. Smith, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
Omolara Glenn, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
Portia Mason, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
Charlotte Williams, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
S Catherine Silver Key, North Carolina Central University
Tyneshia C P Henry, North Carolina Central University
Ashlee G. Johnson, North Carolina Central University
Jackie X. White, North Carolina Central University
Adam Haberman, Oberlin College
Sam Asinof, Oberlin College
Kelly Drumm, Oberlin College
Trip Freeburg, Oberlin College
Nadia Safa, Oberlin College
Darrin Schultz, Oberlin College
Yakov Shevin, Oberlin College
Petros Svoronos, Oberlin College
Tam Vuong, Oberlin College
Jules Wellinghoff, Oberlin College
Laura L M Hoopes, Pomona College
Kim M. Chau, Pomona College
Alyssa Ward, Pomona College
E Gloria C. Regisford, Pomona College
LaJerald Augustine, Prairie View A&M University
Brionna Davis-Reyes, Prairie View A&M University
Vivienne Echendu, Prairie View A&M University
Jasmine Hales, Prairie View A&M University
Sharon Ibarra, Prairie View A&M University
Lauriaun Johnson, Prairie View A&M University
Steven Ovu, Prairie View A&M University
John M. Braverman, Saint Joseph's University
Thomas J. Bahr, Saint Joseph's University
Nicole M. Caesar, Saint Joseph's University
Christopher Campana, Saint Joseph's University
Daniel W. Cassidy, Saint Joseph's University
Peter A. Cognetti, Saint Joseph's University
Johnathan D. English, Saint Joseph's University
Matthew C. Fadus, Saint Joseph's University
Cameron N. Fick, Saint Joseph's University
Philip J. Freda, Saint Joseph's University
Bryan M. Hennessy, Saint Joseph's University
Kelsey Hockenberger, Saint Joseph's University
Jennifer K. Jones, Saint Joseph's University
Jessica E. King, Saint Joseph's University
Christopher R. Knob, Saint Joseph's University
Karen J. Kraftmann, Saint Joseph's University
Linghui Li, Saint Joseph's University
Lena N. Lupey, Saint Joseph's University
Carl J. Minniti, Saint Joseph's University
Thomas F. Minton, Saint Joseph's University
Joseph V. Moran, Saint Joseph's University
Krishna Mudumbi, Saint Joseph's University
Elizabeth C. Nordman, Saint Joseph's University
William J. Puetz, Saint Joseph's University
Lauren M. Robinson, Saint Joseph's University
Thomas J. Rose, Saint Joseph's University
Edward P. Sweeney, Saint Joseph's University
Ashley S. Timko, Saint Joseph's University
Don W. Paetkau, Saint Mary's College
Heather L. Eisler, Saint Mary's College
Megan E. Aldrup, Saint Mary's College
Jessica M. Bodenberg, Saint Mary's College
Mara G. Cole, Saint Mary's College
Kelly M. Deranek, Saint Mary's College
Megan DeShetler, Saint Mary's College
Rose M. Dowd, Saint Mary's College
Alexandra K. Eckardt, Saint Mary's College
Sharon C. Ehret, Saint Mary's College
Jessica Fese, Saint Mary's College
Amanda D. Garrett, Saint Mary's College
Anna Kammrath, Saint Mary's College
Michelle L. Kappes, Saint Mary's College
Morgan R. Light, Saint Mary's College
Anne C. Meier, Saint Mary's College
Allison O'Rouke, Saint Mary's College
Mallory Perella, Saint Mary's College
Kimberley Ramsey, Saint Mary's College
Jennifer R. Ramthun, Saint Mary's College
Mary T. Reilly, Saint Mary's College
Deirdre Robinett, Saint Mary's College
Nadine L. Rossi, Saint Mary's College
Mary Grace Schueler, Saint Mary's College
Emma Shoemaker, Saint Mary's College
Kristin M. Starkey, Saint Mary's College
Ashley Vetor, Saint Mary's College
Abby Vrable, Saint Mary's College
Vidya Chandrasekaran, Saint Mary's College of California
Christopher Beck, Saint Mary's College of California
Kristen R. Hatfield, Saint Mary's College of California
Douglas A. Herrick, Saint Mary's College of California
Christopher B. Khoury, Saint Mary's College of California
Charlotte Lea, Saint Mary's College of California
Christopher A. Louie, Saint Mary's College of California
Shannon M. Lowell, Saint Mary's College of California
Thomas J. Reynolds, Saint Mary's College of California
Jeanine Schibler, Saint Mary's College of California
Alexandra H. Scoma, Saint Mary's College of California
Maxwell T. Smith-Gee, Saint Mary's College of California
Sarah Tuberty, Saint Mary's College of California
Christopher D. Smith, San Francisco State University
Jane E. Lopilato, Simmons College
Jeanette Hauke, Simmons College
Jennifer A. Roecklein-Canfield, Simmons College
Maureen Corrielus, Simmons College
Hannah Gilman, Simmons College
Stephanie Intriago, Simmons College
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Bib Yang, Simmons College
Charles R. Hauser, St. Edward's University
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England Raimey, St. Edward's University
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Luis R. Colon-Cruz, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Jose M. Cruz-Garcia, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Alex J. Feliciano-Cancela, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Wilfried Guiblet, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Angel L. Laboy-Corales, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
Gabriela A. Llaurador-Caraballo, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Sonya G. Mendez-Castellanos, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Carol I. Morales-Caraballo, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Patricia Ortiz-Ortiz, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
Hendrick Pagan-Torres, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
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Nadyan M. Vargas-Barreto, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
Miguel Velez-Vazquez, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
Luis R. Vilanova-Velez, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
Cristina Zambrana-Echevarria, University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez
Christy MacKinnon, University of the Incarnate Word
Hui-Min Chung, University of West Florida
Chris Kay, University of West Florida
Anthony Pinto, University of West Florida
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Chris Harward, Utah Valley University
Robert Allen, Washington University in St. Louis
Pavan Bhat, Washington University in St. Louis
Jimmy Hsiang-Chun Chang, Washington University in St. Louis
York Chen, Washington University in St. Louis
Christopher Chesley, Washington University in St. Louis
Dara Cohn, Washington University in St. Louis
David DuPuis, Washington University in St. Louis
Michael Fasano, Washington University in St. Louis
Nicholas Fazzio, Washington University in St. Louis
Katherine Gavinski, Washington University in St. Louis
Heran Gebreyesus, Washington University in St. Louis
Thomas Giarla, Washington University in St. Louis
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Rachel Greenstein, Washington University in St. Louis
Hashini Gunasinghe, Washington University in St. Louis
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Tao Jian He, Washington University in St. Louis
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Ruth Howe, Washington University in St. Louis
Jeff Howenstein, Washington University in St. Louis
Henry Huang, Washington University in St. Louis
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Young Lu Kim, Washington University in St. Louis
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Sarah Kong, Washington University in St. Louis
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Matthew Kwong, Washington University in St. Louis
Brandon Lee, Washington University in St. Louis
Ryan Lee, Washington University in St. Louis
Kevin Levine, Washington University in St. Louis
Yedda Li, Washington University in St. Louis
Bo Liu, Washington University in St. Louis
Lucy Liu, Washington University in St. Louis
Max Liu, Washington University in St. Louis
Adam Lousararian, Washington University in St. Louis
Jimmy Ma, Washington University in St. Louis
Allyson Mallya, Washington University in St. Louis
Charlie Manchee, Washington University in St. Louis
Joseph Marcus, Washington University in St. Louis
Stephen McDaniel, Washington University in St. Louis
Michelle L. Miller, Washington University in St. Louis
Jerome M. Molleston, Washington University in St. Louis
Cristina Montero Diez, Washington University in St. Louis
Patrick Ng, Washington University in St. Louis
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Hien Nguyen, Washington University in St. Louis
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Jason Pollack, Washington University in St. Louis
Suchita Rastogi, Washington University in St. Louis
Himabindu Reddy, Washington University in St. Louis
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Jien Shim, Washington University in St. Louis
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Kenneth Smith, Washington University in St. Louis
Sarah J. Spencer, Washington University in St. Louis
Priya Srikanth, Washington University in St. Louis
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Andrew P. Stein, Washington University in St. Louis
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Lisa Sudmeier, Washington University in St. Louis
Mengyang Sun, Washington University in St. Louis
Varun Sundaram, Washington University in St. Louis
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Alan Tseng, Washington University in St. Louis
Albert Tzeng, Washington University in St. Louis
Rohit Venkat, Washington University in St. Louis
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Leah Waldman, Washington University in St. Louis
Tracy Wang, Washington University in St. Louis
Hao Yang, Washington University in St. Louis
Jack Y. Yu, Washington University in St. Louis
Yin Zheng, Washington University in St. Louis
Mary L. Preuss, Webster University
Angelica Garcia, Webster University
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Laurell MacMillian, Widener University - Main Campus
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Andrew Montgomery, Widener University - Main Campus
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Anne M. Eime, William Woods University
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Allyson P. Hawkins, William Woods University
Jessica E. Hill, William Woods University
Jessica A. Kampmeier, William Woods University
Cody D. Kern, William Woods University
Emily E. Magnuson, William Woods University
Ashley R. Miller, William Woods University
Cody M. Morrow, William Woods University
Julia C. Peairs, William Woods University
Gentry L. Pickett, William Woods University
Sarah A. Popelka, William Woods University
Alexis J. Scott, William Woods University
Emily J. Teepe, William Woods University
Katie A. TerMeer, William Woods University
Carmen A. Watchinski, William Woods University
Lucas A. Watson, William Woods University
Rachel E. Weber, William Woods University
Kate A. Woodard, William Woods University
Daron C. Barnard, Worcester State University
Isaac Appiah, Worcester State University
Michelle M. Giddens, Worcester State University
Gerard P. McNeil, York College, City University of New York
Adeola Adebayo, York College, City University of New York
Kate Bagaeva, York College, City University of New York
Justina Chinwong, York College, City University of New York
Chrystel Dol, York College, City University of New York
Eunice George, York College, City University of New York
Kirk Haltaufderhyde, York College, City University of New York
Joanna Haye, York College, City University of New York
Manpreet Kaur, York College, City University of New York
Max Semon, York College, City University of New York
Dmitri Serjanov, York College, City University of New York
Anika Toorie, York College, City University of New York
Christopher Wilson, York College, City University of New York
Nicole C. Riddle, Washington University in St. Louis
Jeremy Buhler, Washington University in St. Louis
Elaine R. Mardis, Washington University School of Medicine
Sarah C R Elgin, Washington University in St. Louis

Keywords

codon bias, evolution of heterochromatin, gene size, melting characteristics, transposons

Disciplines

Genetics and Genomics

Abstract

The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.

Comments

Originally published in G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics, Oxford University Press.

Original Citation

Leung, W., Shaffer, C. D., Reed, L. K., Smith, S. T., Barshop, W., Dirkes, W., Dothager, M., Lee, P., Wong, J., Xiong, D., Yuan, H., Bedard, J. E. J., Machone, J. F., Patterson, S. D., Price, A. L., Turner, B. A., Robic, S., Luippold, E. K., McCartha, S. R., … Participating Students Fac Genomic. (2015). Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution. G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics, 5(5), 719–740. https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.114.015966

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