The plant genus Aneilema is located throughout tropical Africa and is composed of 64 species. Classification based on morphology has been difficult because the genus displays highly variable morphological characteristics. The goal of this study is to sequence the chloroplast genes matK, trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH, and rps16 in several species of Aneilema and its relatives to: 1) test the monophyly of Aneilema; 2) clarify the placement of Aneilema within the tribe Commelineae; and 3) test the seven recognized sections (Faden 1991) of Aneilema within a phylogenetic context.