Date of Award


Degree Name

Nursing (D.N.P.)


College of Nursing

First Advisor

Dr. Sandra Spoelstra

Second Advisor

Dr. Marie VanderKooi

Third Advisor

Petra Rotzell


Pain is the most common reason people seek healthcare. Initiatives to prevent the undertreatment of pain have resulted in overreliance on opioids to treat pain. Despite significant increases in opioid use, pain is more prevalent than ever. Additionally, devastating consequences from opioid use have resulted, such as dependence, addiction, and increasing opioid-related deaths. Research demonstrates multimodal analgesic therapy is an effective alternative to the overreliance on opioids to treat pain. Multimodal analgesia is the synergistic use of two or more analgesics with different mechanisms of action. Multimodal analgesia produces significantly more effective and efficient pain management than opioid-only therapy. This project will focus on implementing multimodal analgesia pain management practices and determine its effect on opioid use on an Observation unit.

Included in

Nursing Commons