Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.


Original Citation:

Arnold, E. R., Hartman, G., Greenfield, H. J., Shai, I., Babcock, L. E., & Maeir, A. M. (2016). Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan. PLOS ONE, 11(6), e0157650. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157650

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