Canadian First Nations are composed of 53 different cultures. Their key forces involve a sense of community, respect for elders, and deep values and religious beliefs promoting growth. Counselling issues include assimilation, post-traumatic stress, addictions, cultural identification, health, and issues caused by societal rupture. Non-Native counsellors may be seen as unhelpful or even potentially harmful to community strengths. Counselling methods need to be based on deep respect, benefit to the community, spirituality, and values. Skills include listening in a way that gives meaning to both verbal and nonverbal messages, growth from one’s own hardships, and being helpful versus using technique. .
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