Thematic ApperceptionTest; equivalence; cross-cultural methodology; test bias; implicit motives; affiliation; power




This article examines methodological issues related to the measurement of implicit motives in culturally divergent samples. Implicit motives are seen as basic needs shared by all human beings. However, cross-cultural comparisons are very restricted because many cross-cultural studies on implicit motives with non- Western cultures developed and discussed culture-inherent stimuli. The aim of the study here was to search for a culture-independent set of picture stimuli measuring two basic motives (affiliation and power motive) in three different cultures. Two pretests and one main study were carried out in Cameroon, Costa Rica, and Germany with student and non-student samples, respectively, and an extended methodological cross-cultural analysis was conducted. Construct bias, method bias, and item bias that threaten the cross-cultural comparability of findings were addressed. In analyses, unbiased culture-independent sets of picture stimuli were identified that can be used for cross-cultural comparisons of these two implicit motives.


Original Citation: Hofer, Jan, Athanasios Chasiotis, Wolfgang Friedlmeier, Holger Busch, and Domingo Campos. "The Measurement of Implicit Motives in Three Cultures: Power and Affiliation in Cameroon, Costa Rica, and Germany." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36, no. 6 (2005): 689-716.

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