Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Nursing (M.S.N.)

Degree Program

College of Nursing


Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new blindness among adults. Dilated funduscopic eye exams are necessary to screen for this complication of diabetes. It is often asymptomatic in the earliest stages when it is the most treatable. Nurses often need to refer people with diabetes for these screens.

Data were collected by TENDON through a survey of optometrists and were reexamined. The TENDON region includes ten counties in Western and Central Michigan. The original survey was sent to optometrists in the ten counties to gather information to print a survey used by nurses and others making referrals for screening.

This thesis, based on Neuman’s System model (1995) asked the following of the data: a) the number of respondents by county; b) the approximate number of people with diabetes seen yearly; c) how often screens are recommended; d) the charge for a dilated funduscopic eye exam; e) patient education; f) and contraindications for examination?

Optometrists from each of the ten counties in the TENDON region responded to the survey. Most respondents recommend exams at least annually. The mean cost was $50.65, the mode was the category of $51-$60. All respondents educate patients, most both verbally and written. Contraindications varied, the most frequent was narrow/closed angle glaucoma.


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