Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Physical Therapy (M.S.)

Degree Program

Physical Therapy


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the strength of the upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior, and overhead throwing accuracy in 52 female collegiate softball players. The correlation between manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) was also examined. The Functional Throwing Performance Index (FTPI) was used to measure throwing accuracy. Spearman’s correlation analysis demonstrated no correlation between the strength assessments and throwing accuracy, as measured by the FTPI. Moderate correlations were found between MMT and HHD strength assessments of the lower and middle trapezius and serratus anterior muscles. A poor correlation was found between the two types of strength assessments of the upper trapezius muscle. The results of this study do not support the premise that scapular muscle strength and throwing accuracy are related. Although a moderate statistically significant correlation was found between MMT and HHD, clinical significance was poor. Further research is necessary to substantiate these findings.


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