Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Nursing (M.S.N.)

Degree Program

College of Nursing


Recent advances in technology and the focus on cost-effective care may subject nurses to increasing demands in their jobs. These demands can lead to an increased level of stress and burnout. The concept of hardiness has been linked to burnout in studies among various groups. Hardiness is a set of personality characteristics that may function as a resource in coping with stress. This study examined the relationship between hardiness and burnout in full-time staff nurses and per diem nurses. The Neuman systems model served as a theoretical framework for the concepts of hardiness and burnout. A descriptive correlational design was used to assess these relationships. Seventy-five nurses in two area hospitals were surveyed using the Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, the Cognitive Hardiness Scale, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data were tested using Pearson’s r correlation and t-tests. The Hypotheses: 1 ) Per diem nurses will have more hardiness than full-time staff nurses, and 2) Per diem nurses will have less burnout than full-time staff nurses were not supported. A moderately strong, direct, statistically significant relationship was found between hardiness and burnout among the total subjects. No significant differences were found between per diem nurses and full-time staff nurses. Demographic variables had no significant relationship with hardiness or burnout. Implications of the study include further investigation into the concept of hardiness. A universal definition of hardiness, and new ways of measuring hardiness is needed in order to utilize interventions based on one’s level of hardiness and burnout.


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