Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Nursing (M.S.N.)

Degree Program

College of Nursing


The majority of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) are anxious and experiencing some degree of pain. Betty Neuman's Neuman system model, provided the theoretical framework to explore and describe the effects of music on the pain and anxiety experienced during peripheral intravenous (IV) insertion in the ED. A convenience sample of 41 subjects completed pain and anxiety visual analogue scales as well as blood pressure and pulse monitoring before and after IV insertion. Twenty-one of those subjects received music during the intervention.

An analysis of covariance was performed for post-procedure pain, anxiety, pulse, and blood pressure. Anxiety was significant (F = 10.39; p = 0.003) in post-procedure analysis between groups. A paired t-test demonstrated significant improvement within the intervention group for pain (t =2.742; df = 20; p = 0.013) and anxiety (t = 3.049; df = 20; p = 0.006). In addition, diastolic blood pressure was trending with p = 0.059.


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