Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Education (M.Ed.)

Degree Program

College of Education

First Advisor

Linda Pickett

Second Advisor

Barbara Lubic

Third Advisor

Cheryl Kaletka


The effects of prenatal exposure to many prescription medications are well known. However, little is known about the long term side effects early exposure to medications used to treat pain and sedate have on growth and development. This paper explores the long-term effects of postnatal exposure to prescription medication. The potential effects are applied to physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development as well as the overall health of an infant. Additionally, the options of the use of commonly used analgesics and sedatives are compared to other pain management options. Research surrounding long-term effects of early exposure to pain and generalizations/recommendations are explained.