Date Approved


Graduate Degree Type


Degree Name

Nursing (M.S.N.)

Degree Program

College of Nursing

First Advisor

Emily Droste-Bielak

Second Advisor

Janet B. Banta

Third Advisor

Timothy L. Strickler


The discomfort from receiving an intramuscular injection is pain that may be reduced by proper nursing intervention if the gate control theory is applied. A group of 71 adult preoperative patients were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group received a warm (43.5{dollar}\sp\circ{dollar}C), 800 gram pack proximal to the site of injection. The control and experimental group scores were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test of significance for the intervention. The intervention was not significant in reducing the discomfort from an intramuscular injection at the.05 level.


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