Development can be understood as a series of universal developmental tasks that pattern the human life span. These developmental tasks evolved during the history of humankind, mainly to solve recurring adaptive problems. They are functionally related to each other in the sense that the solution of earlier tasks influences the solution of later developmental tasks. Thus developmental and biographical continuity emerge. The resulting developmental pathways, however, are not conceived of as being absolutely determined by the earlier influences. Developmental pathways are informed by earlier as well as concurrent influences. Plasticity, yet not unlimited, characterizes developmental pathways as well as continuity.
Author, F. M. (2009). Title of chapter. In A. Gari & K. Mylonas (Eds.), Quod Erat Demonstrandum: From Herodotus’ ethnographic journeys to cross-cultural research: Proceedings from the 19th International Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, (paper number). (URL)