Key Points

· In recent years, strategy has been a muchdiscussed topic in philanthropy, while tactics have received little attention.

· The experience of the MacArthur Foundation’s environmental program and its Moving Spotlight approach provide examples of the importance of tactical decisions.

· Tactical decisions such as the timing of grants, foundation staffing levels, and the timing of evaluations all contribute to grantees’ ability to achieve outcomes.

· Structure and flexibility can be complementary approaches to grantmaking if the tactics are well thought out.

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