Author Bio

Deanna Birdyshaw is the associate director of The University of Michigan Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. Before coming to the University of Michigan, she served as English Language Arts Consultant for the Michigan Department of Education for 4 years. She taught 2 7 years in Ypsilanti Public Schools. She is currently president-elect of the Michigan Reading Association.

Nina Yochum is an associate professor emerita at the University of Michigan. As a classroom teacher, a reading specialist, and a university professor, she has been interested in examining curricular, instructional, and assessment issues associated with literacy learning, with particular focus on the professional development of preservice and practicing teachers.


Dear MRJ Author(s): The MRA Board has approved the release of this article in open access format. If you have questions about your content in the MRJ archives, please contact mrj@cmich.edu and we will respond to your concerns.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.